Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 2 Cultural Heritage of India: Traditional Handicraft and Fine Arts summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Heritage of India Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 2
Cultural Heritage of India: Traditional Handicraft and Fine Arts Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ India is a country of rich cultural heritage.
→ It includes materialistic and genetic heritage.
→ Physical and mental characteristics from the parents by birth is known as Genetic inheritage.
→ Land, house, estate like properties obtained from ancestors is called Material heritage.
→ There are references of 64 arts in our ancient literature.
→ Art of Clay work: The whole life of men revolves around the clay from the cradle to the grave.
→ We have got many clay utensils of red colour that belonged to Lothal Mohanjodaro and Harappa culture.
→ India was famous for producing the utensils of baked clay as well as unbaked clay (Terracotta). This is known on the basis of remains of old and handmade clay utensils found from Nagarjuna Kaunda in south India and Laghnaj.
→ Art of weaving: The art of making long threads using small pieces of cotton from cotton balls and joining them together is called art of spinning.
→ Hand weaving: Since ancient time, India is known for its textile knowledge. Fine Muslin of Dhaka, carpet of several regions, knitting work on attires and artistry etc. occupied a prominent place.
→ Patola of Patan, Kanjivaram and Banarasi sarees, Bandhani of Rajasthan are unique identity of India. Patola of Patan is about 850 years of old art. It is known as Bevad Ikt.
→ Art of Embroidery: The work of embroidery can be seen on the clothes of the idols and statues which were found during the excavation of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. This art was seen on the clothes of men, women and children in Sindh, Saurashtra and Kachchh region at the time of Indus valley civilization.
→ Bandhani of Jamnagar, Jetpur, Bhuj and Mandvi of Gujarat are very popular. The traditional art of embroidery, torans, chakda, pillow cover, bedsheets, shakh, todaliya, clothes like dediya is well-known even today.
→ Embroidery work of ‘Jat’ community of Banni area of kachchh is also unique.
→ Leather Industry: Leather was prominently used for making ‘Masak’ and kos, drum, dholak, table and the bellows used by blacksmiths and various types of footware. It was also used for making belts to tie animals, etc.
→ Diamond-bead work and enamel work: Diamond studded ornaments have been in a great demand in foreign countries.
→ The world famous, diamonds like ‘Kohinoor’ and ‘Great’Mughal’ were found from India only.
→ Diamond, rubies, beads, emerald and topaz were used to adorn and beautify the thrones and crowns and jewellery like bracelets and garlands etc. of kings and queens.
→ Bead work is also found prominent in Gujarat.
→ The beautiful bead Toran pachit, pots, Bari, chakda, Indhoni, Modiya handfans, animal back covers, etc. are knitted in a unique artistic way.
→ Enamel work means the artistic skill of inlaying the bright colours like red, green and blue in the gold and silver ornaments like rings, bangles, earrings, key chains, chains, etc.
→ Experts of enamel work are seen especially in Jaipur, Delhi, Lucknow, Varanasi and Hyderabad.
→ Jari work: Golden and silver threads are woven with clothes and embroidery is done with gold and silver threads to decorate the clothes. Surat is a prominent place of Jari work.
→ Metal work: The artisans of Lothal made different weapons like sickles, drills and needles, etc. with copper and bronze. Also they prepared utensils, idols, and pots. Arms and ammunition for wars were made up of metal.
→ Wooden Art: Wood was used for different purposes like for making idols, toys for children, wooden pillars, windows and doors, small huts on top of the terrace, thrones, chairs and grills. Wooden furniture like swings and toys of Idar and Sankheda in Gujarat are well-known.
→ Inlay work: Indian kings, emperors, rulers and royal people of that time used to wear ornaments as necklaces, bracelets, crowns, rings, nose rings, etc were studded with precious like diamonds, pearls, rubies, etc. Bikaner area of Rajasthan is more popular for inlay ornaments.
→ Akik work: Akik is a kind of precious stone, especially found in valley areas of the river. It is chiefly chalcedonic mixed with silica blue or white stone. Camelian is main stone with semi-transparent quality and red in colour. In Gujarat it is available at Rangpur and Surat.
→ Painting: It is an art which can be expressed through lines and colours. We have evidence of Indian art of painting from the remains of 5000 years old Harappan culture. We have traces of .the pictures of animals and birds in the cave paintings of primitive man of stone age at Bhimbetka (Madhya Pradesh). Ajanta and Ellora caves are incomparable specimens of such paintings.
→ Music: Indian music is unique in the world from the viewpoint of tune, rhythm and harmony. Out of the four Vedas, Samveda is considered to be associated with music. Indian music can be divided in classical music and folk music. We have five main ragas in classical music:
→ It is believed that all these ragas naturally came out of the Panchmukh of Lord Shiva. In ancient India many texts were written on music.
- Sangeet Makarand: A music scholar Narad had written it about 900 BC. It describes 19 veenas and 101 rhythms.
- Sangeet Ratnakar: This was written by Pandit Sarangdev who lived in Daulatabad. Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande considered it the most authentic in music.
- Sangeet Parijat: Pandit Ahobale had written this in 1665 on Northern Hindustani music. It describes 29 types of tunes.
→ Art of Dance: The word ‘Nritya’ has been derived from the original Sanskrit word ‘Nrit’. Shiva is considered the originator and the lord of ‘Dance’ and said to be ‘Natraj’. India has wide variety of traditional classical dances such as Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi, Kathak, Kathakali, Odissi and Manipuri.
→ Dramatic art: It is amalgamation of all the arts. Describing it Bharatmuni says,” There is no sculpture, there is no knowledge, there is no deed which is lacking in dramatic art”. The first drama of Bharatmuni was ‘Devasur
Sangram’. He has also written dramas like ‘Kamabhar’, ‘Urubhanga’, ‘Dutvakyam’ based on Mahabharata.
→ Kalidas gifted us plays like ‘Abhigyan Shakuntalam Vikramovarvashiyam and Malvikagnimitram.
→ The name of Jayshankar Sundari is foremost in the dramatic art of Gujarati.
→ Bhavai: It is special dramatic art that started 700 years ago by Asait Thakar. This art which has been providing public education along with entertainment at the economical rate, promoted during Solanki era.
→ Characters disguised in the form of Ramdev, Jhanda Jhulan, Kajoda, etc. are the main features of Bhavai.
→ The characters like Rangla-Rangli are used to programmes like girls education, save the girl- child etc.
→ Dances of Gujarat: Tribal dance of Gujarat is seen at the time of festivals, marriages, fairs and to please the God-Goddesses. Dances like Mali No Chaalo and Thakryo Chaalo, are seen in Dang. Tippani Dance of labourers performed by Bhil and Koli communities dancers.
→ Garba: The word Garba is derived from the word ‘Garbh deep’. Earthen lamp is placed in a holed earthen pot. Dancers keep it on their head and move around in circle. Garbas are performed during Navratri festival.
→ Gujarati people perform and sing garba to worship and pray Aadya Shakti (Durga). Gujarati poetry known as Garba and Garbi are chiefly associated with Krishna-bhakti.
→ Rasa: This dance is to be performed in circle along with singing. There is a story that Lord Krishna had shown ‘Rasa Lila’ to devotee Narsinh Mehta. The other dances of Gujarat are Gof Gunthan, Dhamaal of Siddis, Merayo, Padhar Kali and Mer.
→ Thus, Indian culture is universal assimilating all. As a result of arrival of various tribes, many changes occurred. This shows rich and varied heritage of India.
Cultural Heritage of India: Traditional Handicraft and Fine Arts Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Genetic Inheritance: A child inherits physical and mental characteristics from the parents by birth is known as genetic inheritance.
• Material Inheritance: House, land, estates like properties obtained from ancestors is called
• World Yoga Day: Today the education of Yoga has been considered as a part of cultural heritage
which has been accepted by the whole world. Consequently 21th June is celebrated as ‘World Yoga Day’.
• Terracotta: It is a brownish-red clay that has been baked and is used for making things like pots, ornaments, etc.
• Tuti-e-Hind: During the time of Alauddin Khalaji, the contribution given by Amir Khusro in the field of music and poetry has came to be known as “Tuti-e-Hind”.
• Bhavai: Scripts writers have said the Bhavai is an emotion oriented drama.
• Rasa: Rasa is dance to be performed in circle along with singing.
• Chado Dance: Imitations of birds like peacocks, squirrels, sparrows are seen in this tribal dance. For example, Mali no Chaalo, Thakyro Chaalo of Dang.
• Shramhjari Tippani Dance: This dance is performed by labourers of Bhil and Koli communities in which dancers perform dance in group on the set of thick stick which are joined with small sticks stuck to the ground.
• Gof Gunthan Dance: In this dance of Gujarat, it is performed on drumbeats and taal and laya of music tying rope with mandapa, pillar, tree and holding the other end in the hand in group holding the rope in one hand and dandiya in other. They make cripper life formation going one inside and other coming outside repeatedly in a circle. This is called Gof Gunthan Dance.
• Traditions: The customs having all values and life-style continues from the ancestors that can be obtained either traditionally or as a heritage are called traditions.