Our Revision Notes for GSEB Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 1 Heritage of India summarises the key points of a chapter and useful resource to prepare effectively for the upcoming board exams.
Heritage of India Class 10 GSEB Notes Social Science Chapter 1
Heritage of India Class 10 GSEB Notes
→ North to the India Ocean in the South, from Bay of Bengal in the East to the Arabian Sea in the West.
→ Area wise India ranks 7th and population-wise second largest country’ in the world.
→ Our motherland bestowed rich and varied heritage to us and the world.
→ The values ‘Sat’, ‘Chit’ and ‘Anand’ are realized from the Indian culture. We have accepted values of non-violence and world peace.
→ Culture and heritage: Culture is a sum of habits, values, customs, traditions and conduct of life style of human while heritage means a valuable gift from our forefathers.
→ We divide our heritage into (1) Natural Heritage (2) Cultural Heritage.
→ Natural Heritage: It refers to the result of close relationship between nature, environment and human life.
→ Natural heritage of India is unique and varied. It includes features like mountains, forests, deserts, rivers, streams, seas, trees, plants, creepers, flowers, leaves, insects and varied landscapes, wide range of minerals, vegetation, plants and animals.
→ The example of close relation with nature are stories of Panchatantra and Jataka tales of Buddhist religion.
→ Beautiful landscapes are generally formed due to different shapes of land. For example, Himalaya.
→ Rivers have been providing natural ways since ancient time. Indian culture has flourished on the river banks of the Indus and Ravi.
→ Vegetation. The people of India love their environment since ancient time. Trees such as banyan, pipal and basil are worshipped in India.
→ Wildlife: Our religious belief has given a status of God-Goddesses riding on some of the wild animals like tigers, alligators, eagles, peacocks, etc. Our national emblem is highly valued by having the figure of four lions, horse and bull.
→ Cultural Heritage: Whatever is received or created by human with his tact, wisdom, art and skill is called cultural heritage. It is a man-made heritage.
→ The art of architecture and sculpture is about 5000 years old. The remains of Indus Valley Civilization is an evidence of it.
→ Figures of bullock or lion on an inverted Lotus of Mauryan Era, the statue of Gautam Buddha in a meditative form or the Kalkhand statues of Jain Tirthankars, the caves of Ellora of Rash- trakuta dynasty etc. make us feel proud and respect of our cultural heritage.
Cultural Heritage of Gujarat:
- The places of cultural, legendary and archaeological importance include Lothal, Rangpur, Dholavira (Dholaveera) and Rozadi or Shrinathgadh.
- The places of historical importance include Victory tower of Vadnagar, stone inscription of Ashoka, Sun temple of Modhera, Fort of Champaner, Rudra Mahalaya of Siddhpur, Mansar lake of Viramgam, Jama Masjid, Jhoolta Minar, Sidi Saiyed ni Jali (grill), temples of Hathisinh, Jain temples at Ahmedabad, Sahastralinga lake of Patan, Rani ki vav, Raj Mahai of Vadodara, Tomb of Mohabat Khan and Parsi Agiari at Navsari.
- Places of Pilgrimage include Owarkadhish temple, Shardapeeth of Shankaracharya, Somnath Jyotirlinga, Ambaji temple, Bahucharaji temple, Ranchod Rai Temple, Shamlaji temple, etc.
- Places of social, religious and tourism include Polo forest, Kite festival, Kankaria carnival, Tana-Riri festival, Northern dance festival, Rannotsava etc.
- Jain and Buddhist caves are seen at Vadnagar, Taranga, Khambhaliya, Shamlaji, Koteshwar, Talaja, Dhank, Jhagadiya, etc.
- Modhera fair, Bahucharaji fair, Shamlaji fair, Bhavnath fair, etc. are famous fairs of Gujarat.
India: Land and people
- Mermerised by varied and prosperous heritage many foreign tribes came to India.
- Negritoit or Habsi people came from Africa to India via Baluchistan. They had black complexion, curly hair, four to five feet of height.
- Australoid or Nishad people came from the south-east Asia. They were of black complexion, broad head, flat nose and short height. We find them in Kol and Munda tribals, Khasi tribals in Assam, the tribes in Nicobar and Myanmar.
- Dravidians were the direct descendants of Mohenjodaro culture and stone age civilisation. They had matriarchal system of family. Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam are the Dravidian family languages.
- Mongoloids or Kirat came from North China via Tibet. They settled down in North Assam, Bhutan, Sikkim and West Bengal. They had yellow complexion, fiat face, chubby cheeks and almond-shaped eyes.
- Alpine, Dinarik and Armenoid migrated from Central Asia. They are found among the tribals in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bengal and Odisha.
- The Nordic-Aryans were the creators of the Aryan civilisation in India. They were concentrated in North-west region named ‘Sapta-Sindhu’.
Preservation and Conservation of Heritage
- It is the primary and pious duty of every citizen of India to observe that nobody harms the ancient memorials and also to preserve places having historical importance and values.
- In Indian Constitution, the Fundamental Duties of citizens are mentioned in Article 51(A). In that (6), (7) and (9) describe the following duties for preservation of our cultural heritage.
(i) Understanding the importance of our harmonious culture, prosperity and to preserve it.
(ii) Maintaining the forests, tanks, rivers, ponds and the wild animals and birds along with maintaining the natural environment and to show compassion for all the living creatures.
(iii) The protection of public property and giving up violence are also included in it. Thus, nature has generously donated abundant prosperity to India.
Heritage of India Class 10 GSEB Notes Important Terms
• Culture: It is a total of habits, values customs, traditions and ideals leading humans to the highest level.
• Heritage: It means a valuable gift from our forefathers to us.
• Natural Heritage: The result of close relationship between nature, environment and human life is natural heritage.
• Lokmata: Rivers have enriched life of people through natural heritage. So we call it Lokmata with due respect.
• Cultural Heritage: It is a man-made heritage, whatever is received or created by human with it tact, wisdom, art and skill is called cultural heritage.
• Pre-historic Period: The period in which script or writing was not started is called pre-historic period.
• Fair: A gathering of people welcoming colourful/varied culture traditionally at places having religious and social importance.
• Nishad: It is a term given by Aryans to Australoid people who came from south east Asia.
• Kirat: Mongoloids were known as Kirat due to yellow complexion.
• Nordic: The tall, fair people of European race are called nordic. The Nordic Aryans were the creations of Aryan civilisation in India.
• Sapta Sindhu: The region where seven large rivers (Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj, Sindhu, Saraswati) were flowing via north-west India and Punjab.
• Richas: Aryans had composed hymns for praying various natural element called Richas.
• Indianisation: Foreign tribes came to India were greatly influenced by languages, script, names and religious beliefs etc., and a fine amalgamation was done with Indians. This is known as Indianisation.
• The Modhera Fair is held at Modhera (Mehsana District) in the third week of January (Shravan VadAmas).
• Bahucharaji Fair is held at Bahucharaji (Mehsana District) on Chaitri Sud Poornima.
• The Shamlaji Fair is held at Shamlaji (Aravalli District) from Kartik Sud 11 to Amas.
• Bhadarvi Poonam Fair is held at Ambaji (Banaskantha District) on Bhadarvi Poonam.
• Bhavnath Fair is held at Gimar (Junagadh) from Maha Vad 9 to 12.
• Tametar Fair in Surendranagar District is famous. It is held during first week of Bhadrapad (Bhadarva).
• Bhadiyad Fair is held at Bhadiyad (Ahmedabad District) on Rajab month date 9,10 and 11.
• Naklang Fair is held at Bhavnagar on Bhadarva Vad Amas.
• Madhavpur Fair is held at Madhavpur (Porbandar District) from Chaitra Sub 9 to 13.
• Vautha Fair is held at Vautha (Dholka, Ahmedabad District) on Kartak Sud Poonam.
• Miradatar Fair is held at Unava (Near Unjha) in Rajab Month 16 to 22.
• Dang’s Darbar Fair is held at Ahwa (Dang District) on Falgun Sud Poonam.
• Gol Gadheda fair is held at Godhra (Dahod Taluka) on 5 to 7 days after Holi. .
• Kartik Poomima Fair is held at Somnath (Gir) on Falgun Sud Poonam.
• Bhanguriya Fair is held at Chhota Udaipur and Kawant from Holi to Rang Panchami